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The possible future of the token economy

The possible future of the token economy
Genesis In the beginning there was Bitcoin, from Bitcoin the MasterCoin was born. The offspring from this was called Ethereum this may give us some clues to the future of tokenization. There could be two possible likely scenarios in the near future with the uncertainty in high profile cases that has now arising. 1. The Reves test is applied and 99 percent of all initial coin offering are securities. 2. Tokens are born without an ICO.
First keep in mind the author is not a securities lawyer and is not giving legal advice or suggesting that all tokens are securities, I will leave that to those much wiser than myself.
 

Reves vs. Ernest &Young

So let's start by explaining the reeves test. Under the “family resemblance” test, one must start with the presumption that a note is a security which is rebutted if the note bears a resemblance to one of the enumerated categories on a judicially developed list of exceptions.  If the “note” does not bear a resemblance to an item on the list, the analysis continues to determine if a new category should be added to the list. The following is : (i) The motivation of seller and buyer – The first factor is described as the motivation that prompts “a reasonable seller and buyer to enter into” the transaction.  If the seller’s motivation is to raise money for his/her business and the buyer’s motivation is to earn profits, then the note is likely a security.  Even if the note is not necessarily characteristic of a security, if the investor reasonably expected that they were buying a security, and would be protected by the accompanying securities laws, the courts can determine that indeed a security has been sold. (ii) The plan of distribution of the instrument – The second factor determines whether the instrument is being distributed for investment or speculation.  If the note instrument is being offered and sold to a broad segment or the general public for investment purposes, it is a security. (iii) The reasonable expectations of the investing public – An instrument will be deemed a security where the reasonable expectation of the investing public is that the securities laws (and accompanying anti-fraud provisions) apply to the investment. (iv) The presence of alternative regulatory regime – The fourth and final factor is a determination whether another regulatory scheme “significantly reduces the risk of the instrument, thereby rendering the application of the Securities Act unnecessary.”  The FDIC and ERISA laws are two such examples. Both before and after Reves, the issue of whether bank notes or CD’s are a security has been often litigated.  In Marine Bank vs. Weaver, 455 U.S. 551 (1982), the U.S. Supreme Court held that a federally insured bank CD is not a security. In that case the court relied heavily on the fact that the bank was federally regulated and the subject CD was federally insured.  The Court stated that CDs could be securities subject to the Act in other contexts and that instruments “must be analyzed and evaluated on the basis of the content of the instruments in question, the purposes intended to be served and the factual setting as a whole.”

Hypothesis

If the Reves test applies then a company could do a token offering as a security under Reg A+ or even file an S-1 for larger companies even already publicly traded ones. Under this scenario the company could birth a membership or redemption token with a stable value that could be exchanged for goods and services in the echo system. There is legal precedents that this type of thing is legal and and they were not considered a security. In 1972 S&H Greenstamps was brought before the Supreme Court for violating the unfairness doctrine. In FTC vs. Sperry & Hutchinson Trading Stamp Co.. companies could also birth protocol tokens to be initially purchased with the security token only by developers and strategies in order to build Dapps in the echo systems. As an eventual liquidity event companies could later spin out the token into an actual security token in the same way publicly traded companies spin out equity. I could even see a future where division are spun out into security tokens to the current security token holders. The second scenario I see is similar to the 1st except the company currently does not have any tokens and they simply create membership token for their members similar to the virtual currency in games that zynga has created. Companies could also create a protocol token were developers could be rewarded in the echo system for their accomplishments in a similar fashion. In these 2 scenarios an exit or liquidity event could occur in 2 ways. A public security token spinout or the company buying the tokens at a fixed price.
  • Disclaimer the author is not a lawyer and is not giving legal advice this article is for informational purposes only.

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The benefits of Ethereum 2.0 will come sooner rather than later according to Vitalik Buterin

The benefits of Ethereum 2.0 will come sooner rather than later according to Vitalik Buterin

Quick take

1 minute read

  • Vitalik Buterin, has recently answered a number of questions from the community as a part of a “ask me anything“ session on Reddit. 
  • The co-founder highlighted many different topics but specifically said that he expects some significant and noticeable network improvements to come for the project sooner rather than later. 

Vitalik Buterin, the co-founder of one of the biggest crypto projects in the industry known as Ethereum has recently answered a number of questions from the community as a part of a “ask me anything“ session on Reddit. The co-founder highlighted many different topics but specifically said that he expects some significant and noticeable network improvements to come for the project sooner rather than later. He further said:

“TLDR: merge happens faster, PoS happens faster, you get your juicy 100k TPS faster.”

Over the years, the network for Ethereum has experienced some significant rounds of high congestion. Three years ago in 2017, the popular CryptoKitties game slowed down the network massively but with the decentralised finance space growing rapidly, the network has been seriously clogged up.

As a result of this, it has led to high fees and longer than average confirmation times.

With Ethereum 2.0 very much just around the corner, there is a significant scaling upgrade solution that is supposedly going to speed up the network rapidly. This will increase the number of transactions per second and it will also move the blockchain to a different consensus algorithm known as a proof of stake. Phase 0 for the upgrade is set to occur on the 1st of December in two weeks!

The co-founder further went on to say that “all of these changes are designed to decrease the time until eth2 becomes useful to people.” 

For more news on this and other crypto updates, keep it with CryptoDaily!

© 2020 CryptoDaily All Rights Reserved. This article is provided for informational purposes only. It is not offered or intended to be used as legal, tax, investment, financial, or other advice.

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The second richest man in Mexico invest 10% of his portfolio into BTC

The second richest man in Mexico invest 10% of his portfolio into BTC

Quick take

1 minute read

  • Ricardo Salinas Pliego is the second wealthiest businessman in Mexico and the 166th richest man in the world. 
  • It was recently announced last week that he has invested 10% of his liquid portfolio into the leading cryptocurrency, bitcoin. 

Ricardo Salinas Pliego is the second wealthiest businessman in Mexico and the 166th richest man in the world. It was recently announced last week that he has invested 10% of his liquid portfolio into the leading cryptocurrency, bitcoin. This came after he shared a video throwing huge amounts of paper money into the garbage. Not only does it show how worthless the government-issued cash is in today’s world but it also shows how important digital assets such as bitcoin could become.

Furthermore, the video indicates the hyperinflation and how bad it got in Venezuela.

Ricardo is worth more than $11 billion at the time of writing and is the only billionaire from Mexico who seems to have benefited from the coronavirus pandemic and the economic crisis that has come as a result.

For more news on this and other crypto updates, keep it with CryptoDaily!

© 2020 CryptoDaily All Rights Reserved. This article is provided for informational purposes only. It is not offered or intended to be used as legal, tax, investment, financial, or other advice.

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Coinbase co-founder, Fred Ehrsam set to join Fireblocks as a member of the board

Coinbase co-founder, Fred Ehrsam set to join Fireblocks as a member of the board

Quick Take

1 minute read

  • Fred Ehrsam, the co-founder of the crypto platform known as Coinbase is getting ready to join the digital asset security platform Fireblocks. 
  • It was announced last week that Fred would be joining the board following a recent round of funding.

Fred Ehrsam, the co-founder of the crypto platform known as Coinbase is getting ready to join the digital asset security platform Fireblocks. It was announced last week that Fred would be joining the board following a recent round of funding.

The co-founder of the well-known crypto platform is getting ready to join the company as a board member following a $30 million funding ground to help expand its operations on an international level.

Throughout 2020, Fireblocks has launched a secure asset transfer network which would allow more institutions to efficiently transfer assets on chain. And on top of this, the platform also announced that it has seen more than $150 billion in transferred assets over the course of the past year. Fred has said:

“Fireblocks has become the go-to for any business looking to build new digital asset operations or scale existing ones… The extraordinary growth of the Fireblocks Network and its team in the last year attests to the enormous value they have unlocked for enterprise and institutional customers.”

 

For more news on this and other crypto updates, keep it with CryptoDaily!

© 2020 CryptoDaily All Rights Reserved. This article is provided for informational purposes only. It is not offered or intended to be used as legal, tax, investment, financial, or other advice.

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XRP Price Analysis: XRP Continues Correcting

XRP Price Analysis: XRP Continues Correcting

This analysis brought to you by RoboForex.

On Friday, November 27th, XRP has reached stability but is still correcting and trading at $0.5550.

As we can see in the daily chart, after finishing a quick rising wave, XRP/USD price is correcting to the downside. At the moment, the asset is trading close to 61.8% fibo, a breakout of which will indicate further pullback towards 50.0% fibo. The MACD histogram has broken 0 and is still moving to the upside – it may be another signal in favor of a new rising impulse. The upside target of the completion of the correction will be at 0.6800.

In the H4 chart, the cryptocurrency continues correcting to the downside. Right now, it is testing the support level, a breakout of which will result in further decline towards 50.0% fibo. The Stochastic indicator has formed a “Black cross” inside the “overbought area” and is still falling, which is an additional signal in favor of further decline towards 50.0% fibo. After completing the correction, the asset may test and break 61.8% fibo, and then continue trading upwards. The upside target is similar to the daily chart, 0.6800.

Ripple started its rally on November 20th, together with other cryptocurrencies. There are a lot of explanations of why it happened, from investors’ search for alternatives to fiat instruments to a surge in interest in cryptoassets from institutional players. Indeed, all of this really took place and, of course, expansion of the interest was in favor of cryptocurrencies. The entire market is on the rise but since “trees don’t grow sky-high”, active purchases faded to the correction.

Over this period of time, XRP has managed to update its high reached in May 2018. The asset is still moving like 80% below the highs of January 2018, when it was trading at $3.7, but investors are surely positive about further growth.

At the moment, XRP is back to third place in the list of the strongest and most popular cryptoassets.

By Dmitriy Gurkovskiy, Chief Analyst at RoboForex

 

Disclaimer

Any predictions contained herein are based on the author's particular opinion. This analysis shall not be treated as trading advice. RoboForex shall not be held liable for the results of the trades arising from relying upon trading recommendations and reviews contained herein.

 

© 2020 CryptoDaily All Rights Reserved. This article is provided for informational purposes only. It is not offered or intended to be used as legal, tax, investment, financial, or other advice.

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